Southern Workers: In for the Long Haul

After the UAW’s bid to represent workers at the Volkswagen plant in Chattanooga, Tennessee was narrowly defeated last winter, mainstream pundits wrote off the AFL-CIO’s much-vaunted commitment “to develop a Southern organizing strategy.” But the obituaries are premature. Just days after the vote, panelists at a crowded forum in Durham, North Carolina, rejected the pessimistic conclusion that organizing unions in the South remains futile and pointed to areas of potential growth. Their common message was that unions can win in the South through a variety of tactics, such as reaching out to new constituencies, cultivating and mobilizing community support, running innovative campaigns, recruiting and retaining public sector workers, and political action.

New Constituencies

Chris Kromm, director of the Institute for Southern Studies, pointed out that the South has the lowest rates of union membership and the worst concentration of poverty in the United States. The two facts are intimately related, rooted in a well-established strategy of attracting business through a combination of economic incentives and the lure of a low-wage, “union-free” work force. Southern hostility to organized labor is also fueled by racism, with unions viewed, correctly, as vehicles for African American economic and political empowerment.

For more than a hundred years, the South has been the site of significant labor efforts. Duke University historian Bob Korstad points to major strikes in the textile industry in the early twentieth century, organizing among tobacco workers in the mid-twentieth century, the J.P. Stevens organizing campaign in the 1970s, and recent victories by the United Food and Commercial Workers (UFCW) at Smithfield and by the Farm Labor Organizing Committee (FLOC). Women and African Americans played major roles in this history, a trend that continues today and that can lead to organizing success.

MaryBe McMillan, secretary-treasurer of the North Carolina AFL-CIO, believes that the changing demographics of the South, with people moving from elsewhere in the United States, along with substantial immigration from other countries, mean growth in segments of the population—particularly African Americans and Latinos—that are more likely to support unions. These trends represent an opportunity for labor and for the broader progressive movement.

Building Community Support

Community support is crucial. Keith Ludlum of UFCW Local 1208 commented that workers vote against their own interests when they hear anti-union rhetoric from their neighbors and local politicians. Unions must counter that rhetoric by getting their own message out through the community. The union’s strategy in the long struggle and ultimate victory at Smithfield Foods included building community support among, for example, churches and the NAACP. Justin Flores, vice president of FLOC, noted that farm workers lack any protection under federal labor law, and many are also vulnerable as undocumented immigrants. Despite these challenges, FLOC was able to follow a successful strike against the Mt. Olive Pickle Company with a ground-breaking collective bargaining agreement between the union and the North Carolina Growers Association. In June, UFCW Local 1208 launched a statewide “Jobs and Freedom Tour” in support of its effort to organize workers at the Montaire Farms chicken processing plant in Lumber Bridge, N.C.

Innovative Organizing

Non-traditional organizing has also taken off. Zaina Alsous, an organizer with NC Raise Up, discussed the ways that retail and fast-food workers have departed from the traditional union organizing script of seeking formal certification through National Labor Relations Board elections. The new approach emphasizes direct action, including walkouts and demonstrations at hundreds of workplaces around the country, many of them in the South. Already these tactics have resulted in pay raises, recovery of unpaid overtime, and an increased focus on the problems of poverty and low wages.

Public Sector Organizing

Across the country, there have been major assaults on public sector workers, because anti-union forces realize that this sector is the last to hold some power. Often, state legislatures have forbidden collective bargaining or strikes by public sector employees. In North Carolina, commented Angaza Laughinghouse, president of the North Carolina Public Service Workers Union, UE Local 150, collective bargaining agreements between unions and public employers are illegal, as are strikes by public service workers. Despite these obstacles, UE 150 has succeeded in organizing and winning improvements in wages and working conditions for its members. It has done so through rank-and-file workplace action, including wildcat strikes in some instances.

Political Action

Some of this activity has focused on challenging the Republican-controlled North Carolina state legislature and state house, which have pursued an aggressive reactionary economic and social agenda. The “Moral Monday” movement, in which labor has played an active and visible role, devoted its June 16 state capital demonstration to workers’ rights. Public school teachers have established the rank-and-file “Organize 2020” caucus within the North Carolina Association of Educators, mobilizing not just for better teacher pay and working conditions, but also to defend public education against destructive budget cuts and counterproductive standardized testing.

The North Carolina AFL-CIO and Working North Carolina inaugurated a new Workers’ Clinic this summer. The NC AFL-CIO held its annual Labor School in July, empowering workers with knowledge about their legal rights and how to organize for better jobs. NC Raise Up has mobilized fast food workers around the state in a wave of strikes and demonstrations to demand living wages and decent working conditions. FLOC continues to press R.J. Reynolds to take responsibility for low wages and dangerous working conditions in the state’s tobacco fields. And this July, at the Chattanooga Volkswagen plant, five months after the defeat, the UAW chartered Local 42, which is modeled after the works councils in German plants.

Throughout the region, where workers have never stopped fighting for their rights, there is renewed energy as the rest of the country realizes that labor’s best hope lies in the South.



Eric Fink is an associate professor at Elon University School of Law in Greensboro, North Carolina. He formerly practiced labor and employment law in Pennsylvania and California. An earlier version of this article appeared in the DSA Talking Union blog.

Individually signed posts do not necessarily reflect the views of DSA as an organization or its leadership. Democratic Left blog post submission guidelines can be found here.

This article originally appeared in the fall 2014 issue of the Democratic Left magazine.

Data Security for DSA Members

June 27, 2017

Ack! I googled myself and didn't like what I found!

WHAT: A DSA Webinar about "Doxing"

We're proud of our organizing, and chapter work is transparent for both political and practical reasons. However, there are basic precautions you can take in this time of rapid DSA growth to protect your privacy.

Key Wiki is a website that meticulously documents DSA activity and posts it for the world to see. If you're an active DSA member, likely your name is on their website. This is an example of "doxing".

As DSA becomes larger, more visible, and more powerful, we might expect that more websites like this will pop up, and more of our members' information might be posted publicly on the web.

Join a live webinar on Tuesday, June 27 with data security expert Alison Macrina, to learn:

  1. what is doxing? with examples and ways to prevent it
  2. how to keep your passwords strong and your data secure
  3. where to find your personal info on the internet and how to get it removed
  4. social media best practices for DSA organizers
  5. what to do if you've already been doxed

Zoom Link:

Call-in Info: +1 408 638 0968
Meeting ID: 917 327 6528

Introduction to Socialist Feminism Call

June 27, 2017
· 77 rsvps

Join DSA activist Judith Gardiner to explore “socialist feminism.” How does it differ from other forms of feminism? How and when did it develop? What does it mean for our activism? 9 pm ET, 8 pm CT, 7 pm MT, 6 pm PT.

Introduction to Democratic Socialism

July 06, 2017
· 16 rsvps

Join Rahel Biru, NYC DSA co-chair, and Joseph Schwartz, DSA Vice-Chair, on this webinar for an overview of what we in Democratic Socialists of America mean when we talk about "socialism," "capitalism" and the goals of the socialist movement.  8 PM ET; 7 PM CT; 6 PM MT; 5 PM PT.

  1. This webinar is free for any DSA member in good standing.
  2. You need a computer with good internet access.
  3. Your computer must have headphones (preferred) or speakers; you can speak thru a mic or use chat to "speak".
  4. If you have questions, contact Joseph Schwartz,
  5. If you have technical questions, contact Tony Schmitt,, 608-355-6568.

DSA New Member Orientation Call

July 09, 2017
· 2 rsvps

You've joined DSA - Great. Now register for this New Member Orientation call and find out more about our politics and our vision.  And, most importantly, how you can become involved.  9 PM ET; 8 PM CT; 7 PM MT; 6 PM PT.

Running for the National Political Committee

July 11, 2017
· 3 rsvps

Join this call to hear a presentation and ask questions about the role, duties and time commitment of a member of DSA's National Political Committee. In the meantime, check out the information already on our website about the NPC.

Film Discussion: Pride

September 10, 2017
· 12 rsvps

Join DSA members Eric Brasure and Brendan Hamill to discuss the British film Pride (2014). It’s 1984, British coal miners are on strike, and a group of gays and lesbians in London bring the queer community together to support the miners in their fight. Based on the true story of Lesbians and Gays Support the Miners. The film is available for rent on YouTube, Amazon, and iTunes. 8 ET/7 CT/6 MT/5 PT.

Film Discussion: Union Maids

September 24, 2017
· 11 rsvps


Join DSA member and labor historian Susan Hirsch in discussing Union Maids (1976). Nominated for an Academy Award, this documentary follows three Chicago labor organizers (Kate Hyndman, Stella Nowicki, and Sylvia Woods) active beginning in the 1930s. The filmmakers were members of the New American Movement (a precursor of DSA), and the late Vicki Starr (aka Stella Nowicki) was a longtime member of Chicago DSA and the Chicago Women's Liberation Union. It’s available free on YouTube, though sound quality is poor. 8ET/7CT/6MT/5PT.